How Wakanda Forever blends cultures and looks

For Ruth E. Carter, returning to the vibrant world of Wakanda in Black Panther: Wakanda Forever was an emotional journey. Carter, who made history as the first black costume designer to win an Oscar for Black Panther in 2019, was forced to alter her process mid-prep when star Chadwick Boseman died of cancer in 2020. His death meant that writer and director Ryan Coogler had to change the story, which now begins with a funeral for Boseman’s T’Challa character.

Carter and her team had already started designing costumes and reaching out to artisans around the world when everything ground to a halt.

“We started with a story about Chadwick, and then we lost him and we didn’t have a script,” Carter recalls. “We had to bond as a family without being able to physically hug. Ryan Coogler became our hero because we needed him to make the decisions about what kind of story we’re going to tell now. And so we continued to create the art. It happened in a very personal and sensitive way where I still had to build this world, the kingdoms of Wakanda and Talokan, the underwater world.”

One of the film’s most striking sequences comes early on, as the people of Wakanda gather to honor the life of King T’Challa. Wakandans wear mourning white, which is traditional in West African cultures. Coogler challenged the team to use “pure white,” which is particularly difficult to photograph, so Carter used texture and detail to ensure each tribe was distinctive.

A woman dresses in all white, including large earrings and a beaded choker "Wakanda forever."

Letitia Wright as Shuri in Black Panther: Wakanda Forever mourns the loss of her brother, King T’Challa.

(Marvel Studios/Marvel Studios)

“We unified all the tribes with this white color, but where you can tell each tribe by the beadwork they had, or the fur they had on their heads, or the jewelry they wore,” says Carter. “I feel like the scene itself was so powerful when we shot it because it was our turn to grieve together. It wasn’t until we actually shot the scene that we hugged and had a very emotional reaction. So I loved the white and I loved it in the film. What a day to celebrate Chadwick.”

While the Wakanda silhouettes and aesthetic Carter created in Black Panther are still evident, the designer also wanted to evolve many of the looks worn by the key characters. Queen Ramonda, played by Angela Bassett, wears showy robes and ornate headdress crowns to indicate that she now holds the throne of the African nation. The hats were 3D printed, as was her jeweled collar. The Queen’s chest armor is said to be made of Wakanda’s critical metal ore, vibranium, to represent her stature.

“In the first film, she supported King T’Challa and you saw her on the sidelines,” says Carter of Ramonda. “In this one, she’s in charge. I wanted to show designs that express the power of women as much as possible. So she wears a sleeve out of her dress – Shuri does that too when you first meet her – and to me that suggests female strength, vulnerability, beauty and power. Angela’s performance is always so powerful that I felt we had to design her costume to emphasize the work Angela puts in each time she takes on a role.”

The Dora Milaje, an elite group of warriors protecting Wakanda, received a similar upgrade. Carter designed new armor for the soldiers with broader shoulders to give them a stronger silhouette. When their leader, Okoye, travels to Boston, Carter needed a less obvious version of the uniform. She worked with Adidas’ SEED program on a unitard reminiscent of Dora Milaje’s armor, then paired it with a structured black Mugler jacket. The collaboration with Adidas was one of many for the film, as Carter reached out to artists, craftspeople and designers around the world to bring the designs to life, including Iris Van Herpen, JJ Valaya, Ozwald Boateng and Herve Leger.

A man and woman confer on the set of "Black Panther: Wakanda Forever."

Costume designer Ruth E. Carter confers with Wakanda Forever director Ryan Coogler on set.


“With a movie this big, we like to think it’s one person’s great idea, but it’s a lot of artists that come together with their aesthetic and we sort through and decide what direction we want to go in,” says Carter. “It’s a beautiful mosaic of designers, illustrators and artists whose thoughts and stories bring it all together, with Ryan as the yes and no of it all.”

Another collaboration came in the form of the new Black Panther suit. When Shuri, played by Letitia Wright, takes over the superhero role from her late brother, she needed a costume to show off her newfound power and also pay tribute to T’Challa’s iconic look. The suit was designed by Ryan Meinerding at Marvel and updated by Carter, who made some changes to ensure it looked right on a female body.

“We didn’t want to make this shape of Shuri so unrealistic,” says Carter. “She’s like a ballerina. She has this musculature which I think adds to the strength of the suit, but we don’t want to take it to the point where it doesn’t appear like she is. So we adapted it to their body type and shape and then improved it. It was a juggling act the way you present it.”

She adds, “It’s very satisfying for the film as a whole because it’s about women’s issues, power and vulnerability. It’s just a beautiful story about women and the power we have when we embrace it.”

Outside of Wakanda, the underwater kingdom of Talokan proved a challenge for Carter, who created more than 100 costumes for these scenes alone (she estimates there were 400 or 500 in total in the film). She consulted Maya historian Gerardo Aldana and drew on Mesoamerican history and imagery for Namor (Tenoch Huerta Mejía) and his people. Namor’s intricate necklace depicts a two-headed Mayan serpent surrounding a large pearl representing water. His gauntlets and armbands, made by Wētā Workshop, feature historical hieroglyphs. Just as Carter drew on real African cultures in her portrayal of Wakanda, it was important to bring as much cultural accuracy as possible to the rest of the fictional universe.

“We’re introducing this superhero who’s Mexican and represents a faction of their culture, so it’s important that we don’t make that up,” says Carter. “But then again, we are [making this up]. It’s a magical world, but it’s based on something real. It opens it up to more people. It’s important to have that representation.” How Wakanda Forever blends cultures and looks

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