When British archaeologist Howard Carter opened the door to King Tutankhamun’s tomb in 1922, he reported seeing “wonderful things”. Tut’s tomb is filled with special treasures, including the golden mask of the god of death Tutankhamun, a throne and even golden sandals. But all the royal mausoleums are in ancient Egypt Is there such a luxurious tomb?
The answer is no. While Great Pyramid of Giza The Egyptian pyramids and other ancient Egyptian pyramids are amazing monuments, the burial items inside of them seeming relatively modest compared to those buried in the tombs of later pharaohs, such as Tutankhamun.
Wolfram Grajetzki, an emeritus senior research fellow at University College London in the UK who has researched and written extensively on ancient Egyptian burial customs and burial paraphernalia, tells Live: The largest pyramids can look quite simple compared to Tutankhamun Science in an email.
The pyramid was used as the tomb of Egyptian pharaohs from the times of Djoser (reigned about 2630 BC to 2611 BC) to Ahmose I (reigned about 1550 BC to 1525 BC). Most of these pyramids were plundered centuries ago, but some royal mausoleums are still relatively intact and provide clues to their treasures, Grajetzki said.
Related: Who built the Egyptian pyramids?
For example, Princess Neferuptah (who lived circa 1800 BC) was buried in a pyramid at the Hawara site, about 60 miles (100 km) south of Cairo. Her burial vault was excavated in 1956 and “contains pottery, a set of coffins, some gilded personal jewelry, and a set of royal insignia identifying her with Osiris of the Underworld”, Grajetzki said.
King Hor (who lived circa 1750 BC) was buried with a similar set of objects, although he was not buried in a pyramid, Grajetzki said. “Body of [Hor] Wrapped in linen, the tubes were placed into special containers, called canopic jars, Grajetzki said.
The tomb of Queen Hetepheres, mother of Khufu (the pharaoh who built the Great Pyramid), is a little more elaborate. Built at Giza, the mausoleum has a bed and two chairs decorated in gold, along with pottery and miniature bronze tools, Grajetzki writes in a thing was published in January 2008 in the journal “Egyptian Heritage.”
The substructure (lower part) of the unfinished pyramid of king Sekhemkhet (circa 2611 BC to 2605 BC) was found without a cushion at Saqqara, says Reg Clark, an Egyptologist is the author of the book”Eternal Protection: Protecting Ancient Egyptian Tomb From Prehistory to the Pyramids“(American University at Cairo Press, 2019), told Live Science in an email. The king’s coffin was empty, but archaeologists have found” 21 gold bracelets, a wand or gold scepters and other gold ornaments” in a corridor, Clark said: While these are impressive burial artifacts, they do not equal the riches found in Tutankhamun’s tomb.
Grajetzki notes: Artifacts found in these royal burials suggest that pharaohs buried in pyramids may have been buried with more modest belongings than those found found in pyramids. buried with Tutankhamun. Unlike the early pharaohs, Tutankhamun’s tomb is located in the Valley of the Kings – a remote valley near modern-day Luxor that was used as a royal burial ground for over 500 years during the New Kingdom, according to Britannica.
“This doesn’t mean he [Khufu] got poorer [than Tutankhamun]. His pyramid proves otherwise. He was buried only according to the custom of the time,” Grajetzki wrote in the article.
Great treasures have not been discovered in any known Egyptian pyramids. “There are no great ‘treasures’ in the pyramids, as in Tut’s tomb,” says Hans-Hubertus Münch, a scholar who has researched and written about ancient Egyptian burial finds. with Live Science in an email. In addition, no tombs containing a large number of sumptuous rows of tombs have been found dating earlier than when the pyramids were built, Münch said. He notes that during the New Kingdom period (circa 1550 BC to 1070 BC), the period in which pyramid construction ended, sumptuous rows of graves were buried with royal individuals. royal and non-royal has increased.
During the New Kingdom, people, if possible, tried to place a large number of ornate objects in their tombs. “The enormous mass of objects in this tomb is just an invention of the New Kingdom,” Münch said. Exactly why they want to do this is not entirely clear.
Although the burial material inside the pyramids was modest compared with later Ancient Egyptian tombs, some pyramids had long hieroglyphic inscriptions on the walls, which modern scholars refer to as “” pyramid script”. The texts record a large number of “charms” (as Egyptologists call them) and rituals.
The pyramid of Unis or Unas (reigned circa 2353 BC to 2323 BC) was the first pyramid to have these inscriptions on its inner walls, while the pyramid of Ibi (reigned since about 2109 BC to 2107 BC) is the last known case, James Allen, a professor of Egyptology at Brown University, wrote in his book “Contents Ancient Egyptian Pyramids“(Biblical Literary Society, 2005).
The function of the pyramid texts “is to allow the deceased to become an akh,” a spirit that exists in the afterlife, Allen writes. The spells were intended to reunite “ka” and “ba” – parts of a person’s soul that the Egyptians believed were separated at death.
The appearance of these texts “probably reflects a change or renewal in the ancient Egyptians’ conception of the royal afterlife,” Allen told Live Science. In earlier times, documents such as the Pyramid Texts may have existed, but, for whatever reason, they began to be written on the pyramid walls by the time of Unis.
Originally published on Live Science.
https://www.livescience.com/what-is-inside-egyptian-pyramids What did ancient Egypt’s pharaohs stash inside the pyramids?